The TOSR assesses three narrow abilities defined in the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities:
• Lexical Knowledge (VL): The extent of vocabulary that can be understood in terms of correct word meanings
• Induction (I): The ability to discover the underlying characteristic that governs a problem or a set of materials
• General Sequential Reasoning (RG): The ability to start with stated rules, premises, or conditions, and to engage in one or more steps to reach a solution to a novel problem
The TOSR was developed by two practicing speech-language pathologists and builds on their successful vocabulary instruction app, InferCabulary. It includes 90 sets of four high-quality color photographs that reflect a vocabulary word in a variety of contexts. The individual must use semantic reasoning to analyze the pictures and then select the single word from a choice of four that best represents the multiple contexts of the word represented by all the images.
Information obtained from this assessment can provide educators, psychologists, and speech-language pathologists with information on children and adolescent's basic receptive vocabulary knowledge, as well as their higher order thinking and reasoning in the semantic domain.
Administration and Scoring
The TOSR incorporates the easy administration and scoring of traditional one-word vocabulary assessments. The test is untimed and can generally be administered in about 20 minutes. Age-related starting points and ceilings ensure that only a subset of items will need to be administered. Scoring is straightforward, generally taking less than 5 minutes. Raw scores are reported as standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.
The TOSR was normed on a nationally representative sample of 1117 individuals ranging from 7 through 17 years of age. The norming sample included individuals with learning disabilities, language impairments, ADHD, and autism.
Internal consistency: Cronbachs alpha from 0.94 to 0.97
Test-retest: r(86)=0.94, p<0.01
Correlation between TOSR and ROWPVT-4: r(20)= 0.72, p<0.001
Specific language impairment: t(34.37)=3.28, p=0.002
Learning disability: t(29.77)=3.34, p=0.002
Test Kit Includes:
• Test Plates
• 25 Record Forms